Mark Johnson
Professor


Email:

m-johnson2@northwestern.edu

Research:

http://www.bme.northwestern.edu/people/faculty/johnson.html

Phone:

(847)467-7143

Address:

Biomedical Engineering Department
Northwestern University
2145 Sheridan Rd., RM# E378, Tech Bldg.
Evanston, IL 60208



EDUCATION


B.S. (Interdisciplinary Engineering)

Purdue, 1975

B.S. (Mathematics)

Purdue, 1975

S.M. (Mechanical Engineering)

M.I.T., 1981

Ph.D. (Mechanical Engineering)

M.I.T., 1987



EXPERIENCE


Powers Regulator Co.

Computer Programmer (summer 1974)

Argonne National Lab.

Research Assistant (summer 1975)

TRW Inc.

Test Engineer (1975-1977)

Pratt Whitney Aircraft

Design Engineer (1977-1979)

MIT

Research Engineer (1981-1985)

Mass. Eye & Ear Infirmary

Research Associate (1984-1991)

MIT

Instructor (Fall 1986)

Harvard Medical School

Associate in Ophthalmol. (1986-1988)

MIT

Research Engineer (1987-1990)

Harvard Medical School

Instructor in Ophthalmol. (1988-1991)

MIT

Principal Research Engineer (1990-1999)

Tsongas Committee

Mid-Atlantic Coordinator (winter 1991-1992)

MIT

Asst. MIT Varsity Squash Coach (1995-1998)

Northwestern University

Associate Professor of Biomedical Engineering (2000-2008)

Northwestern University

Associate Professor of Ophthalmology (2000-2008)

Northwestern University

NU Squash Club Coach (2001 to 2009)

Northwestern University

Professor of Biomedical Engineering (2008-present)

Northwestern University

Professor of Ophthalmology (2008-present)

Northwestern University

Professor of Mechanical Engineering (2011-present)



RESEARCH POSITIONS AVAILABLE


Johnson Ocular and Biofluids Transport Laboratory


1. Cellular Mechanics and the Hydrodynamics of Glaucoma


The elevated pressure in glaucoma results from an increased resistance to flow that may be due to elevated stiffness of Schlemm's canal endothelial cell. In this project, we explore the cytoskeletal mechanics of these cells using both experimental and theoretical tools. Project available at either the Master's or Doctoral levels.


2. Drug Delivery in the Eye


Drug delivery through both the cornea and sclera is an extremely important topic and yet there is no current model that can adequate predict drug transport rate through these tissues. This study involves development of a theoretical model and experimental validation for the transport of macromolecules through the cornea and sclera. This project is available at the Master's level, with the possibility of continuing the work at the doctoral level.


3. Diffusion and Entropy


Generation in Chaotic, Deterministic Processes. Chaotic processes are characterized by random-like behaviors that appear to generate diffusion and entropy in deterministic systems. This is especially interesting in Hamiltonian systems since theoretical considerations indicate that the entropy of such systems should be conserved, and that such systems should be non-diffusive. The project involves the examination of several low order chaotic Hamiltonian systems to determine how diffusion arises in these systems and what metric is appropriate for characterizing the entropy increase that such systems generate. The studies will involve both theoretical and numerical studies. This project is available at the Master's level, with the possibility of continuing the work at the doctoral level.



PERSONAL INTERESTS


Squash, tennis, skiing, fishing, wild mushrooms, wild plants, fine wines, wine making, hiking, politics, and camping.



RESEARCH INTERESTS


Cellular Mechanics and the Hydrodynamics of Glaucoma


Glaucoma results from an increase in the intraocular pressure that leads to irreversible damage to the optic nerve, and ultimate, blindness. The increased pressure results from an increased flow resistance in the aqueous outflow pathway. This resistance occurs in or very near a unique endothelium that regulates fluid transport into Schlemm's canal. We are investigating the mechanical forces acting on the cytoskeleton of this endothelium.


The Role of Lipids in Age-Related Macular Degeneration


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) will likely be the leading cause of blindness in the developed world in the next 20 years. We have shown that lipid accumulation in Bruch's membrane, which is next to the retina, contributes to the development of AMD. These studies involve an examination of why this lipid accumulation occurs and how it might be prevented.


Transport Through Connective Tissues


Fluid flow and diffusion through tissues is important for both nutrients delivery and waste disposal. These process are also essential for drug delivery. The studies are aimed at the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms by which fluid and macromolecules are transported through connective tissues.


Esophageal Transport


Food transport through the esophagus involves peristaltic pumping of a slurry-like material. This involves fluid-solid interactions in the transport of non-newtonian fluids. These studies involve modeling this process and comparing model predictions with experimental measurements.


Chaos and Diffusion


Chaotic systems are known to produce diffusional-like behavior in spite of the deterministic character of the governing equations. This project is involved with the use of diffusional behavior as a marker for the onset of chaos in various low dimensional systems. Using a unique method for detecting diffusional behavior, mathematical modeling is used to determine the validity of this approach, and to investigate the relationship between diffusive and chaotic behavior in low order systems.



PUBLICATIONS


Books:


1. Johnson, M. and Ethier, C. Ross: Problems for Biomedical Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena, Cambridge University Press, 2014.


2. Johnson, M, Transport through Tissues, in preparation (6 chapters nearly completed).


Chapters:


1. Johnson, M. and Erickson, K.: Mechanisms and routes of aqueous humor drainage. Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology, Volume I: Basic Sciences, chapter 11B, Ed. Albert , D.M. and Jakobiec, F.A., WB Saunders Co. Philadelphia, 2000.


2. Johnson, D. and Johnson, M.: How does non-penetrating glaucoma surgery work?, Non-Penetrating Glaucoma Surgery , Chapter 4, Ed. Mermoud, A. and Shaarawy, T., Martin Dunitz, Ltd., London, 2001 (reprinted from Journal of Glaucoma).


3. Freddo, T.F. and Johnson, M.: Conventional Aqueous Humor Outflow, in The Eye's Aqueous Humor, Ed. Mortimer Civan, Elsevier, 2009.


4. Johnson, M. and Tamm, E.R.: Biomechanics of aqueous humor outflow resistance., Encyclopedia of the Eye, Chapter 93, Academic Press, 2010.


5. Curcio, C.A. and Johnson, M.: Structure, function and pathology of Bruch's membrane., Retina, 5th Edition, Ed. David Hilton, Elsevier, 2012.



Papers:


1. Johnson,M.: Turbulent heat transfer to a rotating disk: a review and extension of Dorfman. ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Nov 1980, 780-1.


2. Johnson,M. and Kamm,R.D.: The role of Schlemm's canal in aqueous outflow from the human eye. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 24: 320-5, 1983.


3. Johnson,M., Ethier,C.R., Kamm,R.D., Grant,W.M., Epstein,D.E. and Gaasterland,D.: The flow of aqueous humor through micro-porous filters. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 27: 92-7, 1986.


4. Kamm,R.D., Butcher,R., Froelich,J., Johnson,M., Salzman,E., Shapiro,A. and Strauss,H.W.: Optimization of parameters of external pneumatic compression for prophylaxis against deep vein thr ombosis: radionuclide gated imaging studies. Cardiovascular Research 20: 588-596, 1986.


5. Ethier,C.R., Kamm,R.D., Palaszewski,B.A., Johnson,M. and Richardson,T.M.: Calculations of flow resistance in the juxtacanalicular meshwork.Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 27: 1741-1750, 1986.


6. Johnson,M. and Kamm,R.D.: Numerical studies of steady flow dispersion at low Dean number in a gently curving tube. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 172:329-345, 1986.


7. Johnson,M., Kamm,R., Ethier,C.R., and Pedley,T.: Scaling laws and the effects of concentration polarization on the permeability of hyaluronic acid.Physicochemical Hydrodynamics 9:427-441, 1987.


8. Salzman,E.W., McManama,G.P., Shapiro,A.H., Robertson,L.K., Donovan,A.S., Blume,H.W., Sweeney,J., Kamm,R.D., Johnson,M. and Black,P.M.: Effect of optimization of hemodynamics on fibrinolytic activity and antithrombotic efficacy of external pneumatic compression. Annals of Surgery 206: 636-641, 1987.


9. Nguyen,K.P.V., Chung,M.L., Anderson,P.A., Johnson,M. and Epstein,D.L.: Hydrogen Peroxide Removal by the Calf Outflow Pathway. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 29: 976-981, 1988.


10. Pavao,A.F., Lee,D.A., Ethier,C.R., Johnson,M., Anderson,P.J. and Epstein,D.L.: Two dimensional gel electrophoresis of calf aqueous humor, serum and filter-bound proteins. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 30:731-738, 1989.


11. Ethier,C.R., Kamm,R.D., Johnson,M., Pavao,A.F. and Anderson, P.J.: Further studies on the flow of aqueous humor through microporous filters. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science30:739-745, 1989.


12. Rosenquist, R., Epstein,D.L., Melamed,S., Johnson,M. and Grant,W.M.: Outflow resistance of enucleated human Eyes at two different perfusion pressures and different extents of trabeculotomy. Current Eye Research 8: 1233, 1989.


13. Johnson,M, Johnson,D.H., Kamm,R.D., deKater,A.W. and Epstein,D.: The filtration characteristics of the aqueous outflow system. Experimental Eye Research 50:407-418, 1990.


14. Johnson, M., Kamm, R., Ho,L.W., Shapiro,A. and Pedley,T.J.: The nonlinear growth of surface tension-driven instabilities of a thin annular film, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 233:141 156, 1991.


15. Johnson,M., Chen,A., Epstein,D.L. and Kamm,R.D.: The pressure and volume dependence of the rate of wash-out in the bovine eye, Current Eye Research 10: 373-375, 1991.


16. Kim,A., Wang,C., Johnson,M. and Kamm,R.D.: The specific hydraulic conductivity of bovine serum albumin, Biorheology, 11: 401-419, 1991.


17. Johnson,M., Shapiro,A., Ethier,C.R. and Kamm,R.D.: The modulation of outflow resistance by the pores of the inner wall endothelium, Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 33:1670-1675, 1992.


18. Murphy,C.G., Johnson,M. and Alvarado,J.: The juxtacanalicular tissue in pigmentary glaucoma: the hydrodynamic role of pigment and other constituents, Archives of Ophthalmology 110: 1779-1785, 1992.


19. Gong,H., Freddo,T.F. and Johnson,M.: Age-related changes of sulfated proteoglycans in the normal trabecular meshwork, Experimental Eye Research 55: 691-709, 1992.


20. Otis,D., Johnson,M. and Kamm,R.D.: The role of pulmonary surfactant in airway closure: a computational study, Journal of Applied Physiology 75: 1323-1333, 1993.


21. Johnson,M., Gong,H., Freddo,T.F., Ritter,N. and Kamm,R.D.: Serum proteins generate aqueous outflow resistance in bovine eyes, Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 34: 3549-3557, 1993.


22. Otis,D.R. Jr., Ingenito,E.P., Kamm,R.D. and Johnson,M.: Dynamic surface tension of TA surfactant: experiments and theory, Journal of Applied Physiology 77: 2681-2688,1994.


23. Brown, C.T., Vural, M., Johnson, M. and Trinkaus-Randall, V.: Age-related changes of scleral hydration and sulfated glycosaminoglycans, Mechanisms of Aging and Development 77:97-101, 1995.


24. Whale, M.D., Grodzinsky, A.J. and Johnson, M.: The effect of aging and pressure on the specific hydraulic conductivity of the aortic wall, Biorheology 33: 17-44, 1996.


25. Sit, A., Gong, H., Ritter, N., Freddo, T.F., Kamm, R.D. and Johnson, M.: The role of soluble proteins in generating aqueous outflow resistance in the bovine and human eye, Experimental Eye Research 64: 813-821, 1997.


26. Sit, A.J., Coloma, F.M., Ethier, C.R. and Johnson, M.: Factors affecting the pores of the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal, Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 38: 1517-1525, 1997.


27. Hubbard, W.C., Johnson, M., Gong, H., Gabelt, B.T., Peterson, J.A., Sawhney, R., Freddo,T.F. and Kaufman, P.L.: Intraocular pressure and outflow facility are unchanged following acute and chronic intracameral chondroitinase ABC and hyaluronidase in monkeys, Experimental Eye Research,65: 177-190, 1997


28. Gong, H., Ye,W., Johnson,M., Kamm,R.D. and Freddo,T.F.: The non-uniform distribution of albumin in human and bovine cornea, Experimental Eye Research, 65: 747-756, 1997.


29. Ye, W., Gong, H., Sit, A., Johnson, M. and Freddo, TF: Interendothelial junctions in normal human Schlemm's canal respond to changes in pressure, Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 38: 2460-2468, 1997.


30. Johnson, M. and Habyarimana, J.: An operational test for distinguishing between complicated and chaotic behavior in deterministic systems, Physica D, 116: 289-300, 1998.


31. Ethier, C.R., Sit, A.J., Coloma, F.M., and Johnson, M.: Two populations of pores of the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal, Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 39:2041-2048, 1998.


32. Ingenito, E.P., Mark, L., Morris, J., Espinosa, F. F., Kamm,R.D. and Johnson, M.: Biophysical characterization of lung surfactant components, Journal of Applied Physiology 86: 1702-1714, 1999.


33. Johnson, M. and Tarbell, J.M.: A biphasic, anisotropic model of the aortic wall, Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 123: 52-57, 2001.


34. Morris, J., Ingenito, E.P., Mark, L., Kamm, R.D. and Johnson, M.: Dynamic behavior of lung surfactant, Journal of Biomechanical Engineeringg 123: 106-113, 2001.


35. Johnson, D. and Johnson, M.: How does non-penetrating glaucoma surgery work?, Journal of Glaucoma, 10: 55-67, 2001.


36. Russell, P., Tamm, E.R., Grehn, F.J., Picht, G., and Johnson, M.: The presence and properties of myocilin in the aqueous humor, Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 42: 983-986, 2001.


37. Overby, D., Ruberti, J., Gong, H., Freddo, T.F. and Johnson, M.: Specific hydraulic conductivity of corneal stroma as seen by quick-freeze/deep-etch, Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 123: 154-161, 2001.


38. Johnson, D.H. and Johnson, M.: Aqueous outflow and glaucoma surgery, Ophthalmo-Chirurgie 13: 88-89, 2001.


39. Johnson, D.H. and Johnson, M.: Glaucoma surgery and aqueous outflow: How does non-penetrating glaucoma surgery work?, Archives of Ophthalmology 120: 67-70, 2001.


40. Johnson, M., Christensen, C., Sit, A., Chen, D., Read, T. and Ethier, C.R. The pore density in the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal of glaucomatous eyes, Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 43:2950-2955, 2002.


41. Gong, H., Overby, D., Ruberti, J., Johnson,M. and Freddo, T.: A new view of the human trabecular meshwork using quick-freeze/deep-etch, Experimental Eye Research 75: 347-358, 2002.


42. Overby, D., Gong, H., Freddo, T.F. and Johnson,M.: The mechanism of increasing outflow facility during washout in the bovine eye, Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 43: 3455-3464, 2002.


43. Ruberti, J.W., Curcio, C.A., Millican, L., Menco, B.Ph.M., Huang, J.-D., and Johnson, M.: Quick-freeze/deep-etch visualization of age-related lipid accumulation in Bruch's membrane, Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 44: 1753-1759, 2003.


44. Ethier, CR, Johnson, M. and Ruberti, J: Ocular Biomechanics and Biotransport, Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering (invited review article), 6:249-73 2004.


45. Seurynck, S.L.,  Brown, N.J., Wu, C.W., Germino, K.W., Kohlmeir, E.K., Ingenito, E.P., Glucksberg, M.R., Barron, A.E. and Johnson, M.: Optical monitoring of bubble size and shape in a pulsating bubble surfactometer, Journal of Applied Physiology 99: 624-633, 2005.


46. Overby, D and Johnson, M.: Studies on depth-of-field effects in microscopy supported by numerical stimulations, The Journal of Microscopy, Vol 220, 176-189, 2005.


47. Johnson, M.: "What controls aqueous humour outflow resistance?", Experimental Eye Research 82: 545-557, 2006.


48. Huang, J., Presley J.B., Chimento M.F., Curcio, C.A. and Johnson, M.: Age-related changes in human macular Bruch's membrane as seen by quick-freeze/deep-etch, Experimental Eye Research 85: 202-218, 2007.


49. Johnson, M., Dabholkar, A., Huang, J., Presley J.B., Chimento M.F. and Curcio, C.A.: Comparison of Morphology of Human Macular and Peripheral Bruch's Membrane in Older Eyes, Current Eye Research 32: 791-799, 2007.


50. Huang, J-D, Curcio, C.A. and Johnson, M.: Morphometric analysis of lipoprotein-like particle accumulation in aging human macular Bruch's membrane, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 49: 2721-2727, 2008.


51. McCarty, W.J. and Johnson, M.: The hydraulic conductivity of Matrigel™, Biorheology, 44: 303-317, 2007.


52. McCarty, W.J., Chimento, M.F., Curcio, C.A., and Johnson, M.: Effects of particulates and lipids on the hydraulic conductivity of Matrigel, Journal of Applied Physiology, 105: 621-628, 2008.


53. Overby, D.R., Stamer, W.D. and Johnson, M.: The changing paradigm of outflow resistance generation: towards synergistic models of the JCT and inner wall (invited review article), Experimental Eye Research, 88: 656-670, 2009.


54. Curcio, C.A., Johnson, M., Huang, J-D and Rudolf, M.: Aging, age-related maculopathy and the response-to-retention of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 28: 393-422, 2009.


55. Curcio, C.A., Johnson, M., Huang, J-D and Rudolf, M.: Apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in retinal aging and age-related maculopathy, Journal of Lipid Research 51: 451-467, 2010.


56. Zeng, D., Juzkiw, T., Read, A.T., Chan, D., D. W.-H., Glucksberg, M.R., Ethier, C.R. and Johnson, M.: Young's modulus of elasticity of Schlemm's canal endothelial cells, Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, 9: 19-33, 2010.


57. Johnson, M., Caro, N. and Huang, J-D: Adequacy of exchanging the content of the anterior chamber, Experimental Eye Research 91: 876-880, 2010.


58. Curcio, CA, Johnson, M, Rudolf, M and Huang, J-D: The oil spill in ageing Bruch membrane, British Journal of Ophthalmology, 95:1638-45, 2011.


59. Cankova, Z, Huang, J-D, Kruth, HS and Johnson, M: Passage of low-density lipoprotein through Bruch's membrane and choroid, Experimental Eye Research, 93:947-55, 2012.


60. Zhou, EN, Krishnan, R, Stamer, WD, Perkuman, K, Rejendran, K, Nabhan, JF, Lu, Q, Fredberg, JJ and Johnson, M: Mechanical responses of the endothelial cell of Schlemm's canal: Scope, variability and their potential role in controlling aqueous humor outflow, Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 9: 1144-55, 2012.


61. Vargas-Pinto, R, Gong, H and Johnson, M: The effect of the endothelial cell cortex on atomic force microscopy measurements, Biophysical Journal, 105:300-309, 2013.


Letters to the Editor:


1. Johnson, M.: Outlandish Claims, Nature 335 (6189) 392, Sept 29, 1988.


2. Freddo, T.F., Kamm, R.D. and Johnson, M: Pathway of albumin into the anterior chamber, Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 233: 662-665, 1995.


3. Ethier, C.R. and Johnson, M.: Hydrostatic pressure is not a surrogate for IOP in glaucoma, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis Sci 47, E-letter, 21 Feb 2006.


4. Johnson, M., Ethier, C.R. and Epstein, D.L.: In vitro hydrostatic pressure models of glaucoma: the importance of Henry's law, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis Sci 48, E-letter, 7 Dec 2007.


5. Overby, D.R., Ruberti, J.W., Gong, H., Freddo, T.F. and Johnson, M.: Response to "Merchant and Heys, Effects of variable permeability on aqeuous humor outflow," Applied Mathematics and Computation 211: 251-252, 2009.



Invited Commentaries:


1. Johnson, M.: Scleral thickness (invited coment on Downs et. al., IOVS 2002), International Glaucoma Review 4-3, 446-447, 2003.


2. Johnson, M.: Aqueous outflow resistance (debate summary), International Glaucoma Review 4-3, 446-447, 2003.



Internal Publications:


The Effect of GAGases on Outflow Facility in the Bovine Eye



Political Newsletters (personal):

Pre Newsletter: Starwars
Newsletter 1: The Homeless; Abortion
Newsletter 2: Drugs
Newsletter 3: Foreign Policy
Newsletter 4: Tsongas; Nuclear Energy
Newsletter 5: Primaries/Elections; Human Intelligence; Aging
Newsletter 6: State Lotteries; Free Will and God; Human Intelligence; Lemonade
Newsletter 7: Hiroshima; Political Parties in Primaries; IX Amendment; Holiday Recipes
Newsletter 8: Affirmative Action; Government Efficiency; Wild Recipes
Newsletter 9: Education of Leaders, Multiple Universes, and Gun, Germs and Steel



Other Publications:


1. Johnson,M.: The enthralling world of SEM, Bulletin of the Boston Mycological Club, 44,1:3-4, 1988.


2. Johnson, M.: Education of our leaders in the next century, MIT Faculty Newsletter, April/May 2000.


3. Johnson, M. and Fautsch, M.P.: Douglas H. Johnson: A tribute, Experimental Eye Research 88: 620-630, 2009.




Northwestern University Biomedical Engineering Department
7 April 2012